Care2 has released a list of the “Top 10 Worst Elephant Experiences In The World,” and the results may be surprising to some. The Oregon Zoo, in Portland, Oregon, has found itself at the top of the list, meaning that, according to Care2, its cruel practices and conditions make it the worst captive elephant tourist attraction on Earth.
Rankings were determined based on several factors, such as the use of chains, tasers, or bullhooks, which are sharp hooked implements used to painfully force elephants into submission. Also considered were unethical breeding practices, previous animal welfare violations, solitary confinement, and frequent travel.
Elephants do not tolerate captivity well in general, even in locations where fewer cruel practices are carried out. They simply have needs that are very difficult to accommodate in captivity and often experience physical health issues such as foot infections, tuberculosis and arthritis, which significantly shortens the average life span of captive versus wild elephants. Their emotional and social needs are also unmet by nearly all captive environments, where they are unable to roam freely and form life-long bonds with a community of other elephants like they would in the wild. Elephants have highly developed brains, with the emotional centers of their brains being the most developed on earth, surpassing even humans. It has been well established that elephants who experience trauma exhibit symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the same debilitating disorder that many humans struggle with, such as rape survivors and veterans returning from combat.
At The Oregon Zoo, elephants withstand several of Care2’s markers of cruelty, including frequent use of bullhooks. In 2000, the zoo was cited in violation of the Animal Welfare Act due to an elephant in their custody named Rose-Tu having over 175 bullhook wounds all over her body. Also noted are the zoo’s unethical breeding practices, including forcing a now-deceased bull elephant named Packy to repeatedly breed with his sisters, and selling elephant calves to entertainment companies. Seven elephant calves born at The Oregon Zoo died before they reached one year old.
Chendra, a Borneo pygmy elephant currently held at The Oregon Zoo, has been rejected by the other elephants there, likely due to being a different species than the others, and spends most of her time alone. This is a painful reality for a social animal who naturally forms deep, long-lasting bonds with others of her species. She constantly walks in circles, an example of stereotypic behavior, which is considered a marker of poor mental health. A petition to release Chendra to a sanctuary is currently nearing its goal of 350,000 signatures, and Care2 is planning to erect a billboard in Portland as part of the campaign to free Chendra.
Also ranked on Care2’s list is Garden Bros. Circus, which uses tasers and bullhooks to force their elephants to perform physically-taxing tricks and travels frequently, and Virginia’s Natural Bridge Zoo Park, where elephant Asha lives alone without other elephants and is forced to give 10,000 rides a year to visitors.
Featured images: two adult elephants and a calf in the outdoor enclosure at The Oregon Zoo. Image credit laughingmonk, CC BY-SA 3.0.